Selective memory is a person’s tendency to remember certain information while forgetting other information. It can be the punch line of many jokes, like when a spouse gets upset with their partner about forgetting to take out the trash. They might indignantly say something like, “I always take out the trash” which is not true. In reality, they had forgotten to take out the trash just a few days ago. In this case, a person is selecting the information they want to remember while forgetting the rest.
Selective memory implies a certain amount of intentionality behind it. It often involves the choice to only remember certain facts or events. The brain is powerful and can even incite the selective memory process. At times, it can happen in instances of trauma. Someone that experienced abuse when they were young might not remember what happened in full detail. The brain helps them to forget traumatic moments that would bring tremendous pain.
Sometimes selective memory is more directed by a person. If they get dumped, they might delete photos and block numbers in an attempt to move forward. However, it can be a person’s way of attempting to forget the painful emotions felt when the relationship ended.
In the examples provided, selective memory can serve as a protective layer for a person. There are some experiences in life that your brain, along with time, allows you to not remember. An example would be when an old friend reminds you of something you did many years ago. Suddenly, you are thrown back into that memory, though you had forgotten about it long ago.
Some memories are so painful it can help to forget some of the details in order to move forward. Selective memory is not all bad, but it might not serve as a helpful long-term solution.
Over time, selectively remembering certain information can cause problems. If you lock away information, it does not necessarily mean there will not be ramifications. For example, if someone is abused, they may still feel the impact of the trauma in their daily lives, even if the details of the event are forgotten. Avoiding certain memories or experiences can still leave behind complicated emotions that have nowhere to go. When emotions are not addressed, it can cause problems over time. They can encourage avoidant behaviors that will drive wedges in a person’s relationships. Depending on the information, event, or memory, utilizing selective memory can result in other issues.
While it can be appropriate and helpful in terms of protecting you, selective memory does not always serve as a solid long-term solution. Addressing issues rather than selectively remembering information is important when moving forward in life. It will likely be difficult at the moment. However, it will provide the potential for more sustained comfort and positive change. If you find it too painful or difficult to unpack these memories on your own, some counselors specialize in working with victims of trauma and those suffering from PTSD that can help work through the events and emotions they bring up. This is the truly healthy way to overcome negative emotions and thoughts in the long-term.
- Aguirre, C., Gómez-Ariza, C. J., Andrés, P., Mazzoni, G., & Bajo, M. T. (2017). Exploring Mechanisms of Selective Directed Forgetting. Frontiers in Psychology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00316
- Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. (2007, April 4). Selective Amnesia: How A Traumatic Memory Can Be Wiped Out. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 29, 2022 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/04/070402102218.htm
- Bäuml, K. H. T., Aslan, A., & Abel, M. (2017). The Two Faces of Selective Memory Retrieval—Cognitive, Developmental, and Social Processes. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 167–209. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.plm.2016.11.004
- Anderson, M. C., & Hanslmayr, S. (2014). Neural mechanisms of motivated forgetting. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18(6), 279–292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2014.03.002
- Anderson, M. C., & Huddleston, E. (2011). Towards a cognitive and neurobiological model of motivated forgetting. In Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (pp. 53–120). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1195-6_3