What Is Infantilization?

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Updated on March 18, 2024

Infantilization is the practice of treating a teenager or adult like a child even when they do not have any obvious disabilities that call for it. While this behavior can take place in all types of relationships, it is most commonly applied by parents to their children.

infantilization in parenting

Oftentimes, as inexperienced new parents begin developing their parenting styles, they normally choose between trying to replicate the styles from the homes in which they were raised or doing the opposite of what their parents did. Some parents choose one of these options and also look to books and parenting experts to refine their techniques. All of this is perfectly normal and common among new parents.

Unfortunately, there are those who for different reasons, have difficulty developing appropriate parent-child relationships and healthy parenting styles. One particular phenomenon that can result in a toxic relationship between parents and their children is infantilization, commonly referred to as “babying.”

Causes of Infantilization

Raising children to become functional, well-adjusted members of society is a challenging task, and many struggle with knowing whether or not they are “doing it right.” While there are a lot of books and opinions about the best way to raise children, there are several fundamental attributes that research has shown to be present in the homes of those children who have grown up to become confident, independent, empathetic, and overall great citizens of the world. Generally, a parent who can provide a balanced environment that is warm and nurturing but also contains clear, enforced boundaries, is likely to have parenting success.

When a parent is too permissive and nurturing, having no boundaries or limits, or when they are too authoritarian, demanding, threatening, or even abusive, these toxic extremes lead children to struggle with developing appropriate ways to form their other relationships and transition to a life on their own when they become adults.

One particular type of toxic parenting relationship occurs when a parent struggles with having a solid sense of who they are as a person. This is more specifically characterized by those who have low self-worth, an inflated (or narcissistic) sense of self, and feelings of entitlement to the attention and admiration of their children. When one has difficulty loving and understanding themselves, they can often develop codependent traits that impact their ability to raise children to be independent, free-thinking, and emotionally healthy adults. Parenting in this way can lead to infantilization.

Signs of Infantilizing Behavior

Here is a list of common behaviors by parents that would be constituted as toxic parenting strategies and characterized as infantilizing behavior:

  • “Babying” children – assuming they cannot do things they are developmentally capable of and stifling their ability to try. Infantilizing parents may also try to keep their children looking young to convey that they are unable to care for themselves, in style, appearance, or activities
  • Being judgmental and disapproving – expressing severe negative reactions to a child’s desire to branch out and have their own unique ideas or skills. Infantilizing parents may often shame their children for trying to make decisions on their own. Similarly, these infantilizing parents may also exhibit lots of negative criticism; being harsh and overly critical of their child’s independent behaviors, thoughts, and ideas.
  • Rejecting or interfering in moves for independence – thwarting a child’s ability to grow by disallowing them to do things like get a driver’s license or move out of the house, or interfering in their relationships with others.

The Dangers of Infantilization

Parents who infantilize their children will emphasize a child’s incompetence in independent activities, making it difficult for them to feel confident in their ability to do things on their own without that parent. This can ultimately cause the child to develop a sense of anxiety or insecurity about being on their own or making their own decisions, which can lead to over-dependence on their parent, and an inability to function in the world.

This behavior often spans well into adulthood and the child struggles to develop a life outside of their parents’ grasp. If a child attempts to obtain some semblance of independence from these parents, the parents may feel threatened and act out in emotionally explosive or abusive ways to cause the child to revert to their normal codependent status quo. This dynamic causes stress and can increase the likelihood that the child will develop severe symptoms associated with anxiety, depression, or other mental health issues that cause them to not be able to function in everyday life.

How to Address Infantilization

Seeking support from a qualified and trained mental health professional can help the child of an infantilizing parent to develop their sense of self and self-worth, allowing them to establish healthy boundaries with their parents so they may move toward independence. This will be difficult and take some time, but with support, setting and keeping boundaries is possible.

If an adult child finds that the boundaries are not being honored by a parent, they may need to decrease or eliminate contact with that parent to help improve their own mental health and stability, for what is hopefully a temporary period until they can establish an appropriate level of independence.


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Dr. Shannon McHugh is a Licensed Clinical and Forensic Psychologist in Los Angeles, California. She specializes in assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults who have developmental and social delays, behavioral difficulties, and those who have experienced traumatic events

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